22 Apr 20 Cybersecurity Interview Questions and Answers
Cybersecurity is one of the most in-demand fields in the IT industry and hence everyone is aiming at cracking the interview questions and answers to get a job in this field. It is expected that there would be around 3 million cybersecurity job vacancies by 2021. However, not every candidate can land in their dream job without clearing the interview. So, here we have around 20 technical cybersecurity-related questions and answers to assist you in cracking the interview.
Knowing the demand for cybersecurity, if you wish to pursue an effective online cybersecurity course you can get enrolled at Cyber Chasse Academy.
20 Important Interview Questions and Answers
It might be easy to get a certification in cybersecurity but cracking the interview is an intimidating task. Hence, you need to be ready to face tough competition. It is highly important to prove that you are the best for the position you are being interviewed for.
1. Define Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity means the protection of data, hardware, and software against cyber-attacks such as accessing, altering or aborting of sensitive information by the cyber attackers.
2. Define Cryptography
It is a technique used to secure important information and communication from third parties. Cryptography allows only the sender and the receiver to read the messages.
3. Mention the difference between IDS and IPS
Intrusion Detection System (IDS) identifies the intrusions and the administrator should try to prevent it. Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) detects and also eliminates the intrusion.
4. What is a Firewall? Mention its uses.
A firewall is a security system employed on the network boundaries that controls and monitors network traffic. The main use of a firewall is to secure the network from malware and viruses. Besides, it is also used to filter content and prevent remote access.
5. Mention the difference between VA and PT
Vulnerability Assessment (VA) is the process of finding fault on the target network/system to prioritize them for fixing at the earliest possible. Penetration Testing (PT) is the process of looking for vulnerabilities in the network/system after finding all the possible faults to test if there are any other means through which the network can be hacked.
6. Explain three-way handshake
It is a method employed in a TCP/IP network to establish a connection between a host and a client. It is named as three-way handshake due to the 3 steps involved that include,
- An SYN packet (Synchronization) is sent by the client to the server to find if it has an open port.
- An SYN-ACK packet is sent by the server to the client if there is an open port.
- An ACK packet (Acknowledgement) is sent by the client to the server after acknowledging.
7. Elaborate CIA triad
Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) is the most popular model devised to frame policies for information security.
Confidentiality: The information is strongly encrypted to avoid access by unauthorized personnel.
Integrity: It makes certain that the information/data is not corrupted or altered by a person who has no access.
Availability: The data is available to the user anytime and anywhere.
8. What is the difference between encryption and hashing?
Both converts readable data into an unreadable format. The major difference is that the encrypted data can be decrypted, i.e. it can be converted back to original data whereas a hashed data can’t be reversed.
9. Differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric encryption
Symmetric Encryption: The same key is used for encryption and decryption. Here the encryption is fast and equally vulnerable. It is used to transmit bulk data. The algorithms involved are DES, AES, 3DES, and RC4.
Asymmetric Encryption: Different key is used for encryption and decryption. Here the encryption is slow because of high computation. It is used to safely exchange secret keys. The algorithms involved are Diffie-Hellman, RSA.
10. Mention the response codes that can be received from a Web Application
1xx – Responses that are informational
2xx – Success response
3xx – Redirection response
4xx – Client-side error
5xx – Server-side error
11. What is SSL encryption?
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is the industry-standard technology for security that establishes encrypted connections between a browser and a web server. The main purpose of this is to maintain data privacy and to secure the information during online transactions.
12. What are the steps to establish an SSL encryption?
- A browser attempts to connect to an SSL secured webserver.
- The web server sends a copy of its SSL certificate to the browser
· The browser checks for the authenticity of the SSL certificate. If it is trustworthy, then the browser transmits a message to the webserver requesting for an encrypted connection
· An acknowledgment to start an SSL encrypted connection is sent by the webserver
· An SSL encrypted connection happens between the browser and the webserver.
13. What is data leakage?
It is the transmission of data from an organization to a third party intentionally or unintentionally. It can be divided into 3 types namely accidental breach, intentional breach, and system hack.
14. What are the common types of cyber-attacks?
Phishing, malware, password attacks, rogue software, malvertising, DDoS, drive-by downloads, and man in the middle are the most common types of cyber-attacks.
15. What is a brute force attack?
It is a way of attempting all the permutations and combinations repetitively to find out the right credentials. Brute force attacks are mostly automated in many cases where the tool/software tries automatically to login with a list of credentials.
16. How to prevent brute force attacks?
- Set a lengthy password with alphabets, symbols, and numbers.
- Set the login failure limit. Mostly 3 incorrect login attempts are allowed post which an OTP is sent to the e-mail of the user.
17. What is Port Scanning?
It is a technique or method employed to find out if there are any open ports and services are available on a host. Hackers use it to exploit vulnerabilities while the administrators use it to verify the security policies of the network.
18. Mention the common port scanning techniques
The most common port scanning techniques are:
- Ping scan
- TCP Half-open
- TCP Connect
- Stealth scanning
19. What is a VPN?
VPN or Virtual Private Network is used to establish a secure and encrypted connection. When a VPN is employed, the data from the client is usually encrypted and sent to another point on the internet. Here, the data is decrypted and sent to the recipient. Hence, it ensures safe data transfer.
20. How to prevent identity theft?
- Set a strong and unique password
- Do not share any confidential information online, especially on social media.
- Shop from trusted websites
- Make use of the latest version of the browsers
- Install advanced malware and spyware tools
- Use special security solutions for financial data
- Keep your system and the software updated
- Secure your SSN (Social Security Number)
There is a huge gap between the available vacancies and skilled professionals in the cybersecurity industry. So, prepare yourself well for the interview by going through the above-mentioned interview questions and answers. Stay ahead of the competition and land in your dream job soon.
I hope this post was highly informative and useful.
If you have any queries, do not hesitate to post it in the comment box below.